Online Teaching Self-Efficacy – How English Teachers Feel During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Shzh-chen Nancy Lee(1*), Chie Ogawa(2)
(1) Osaka University
(2) Kyoto Sangyo University
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.24256/itj.v3i1.1744


The transition from traditional face-to-face to online teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic happened so rapidly that most teachers started teaching without enough training, preparation, and knowledge of online teaching. In order to better understand this current teaching paradigm, the present research examined how English teachers perceive their own ability to teach online. It investigated English teachers’ self-efficacy to teach online by surveying 138 EFL university teachers in Japan. A survey with 29 Likert-scale and two open-ended questions was developed to examine four latent constructs of online English teaching self-efficacy: technology, pedagogy, communicative language teaching, and self-management. Results of the survey found that English teachers were highly self-efficacious toward teaching online. They were most self-efficacious toward the usage of technology, followed by pedagogy, communicative language teaching (CLT), and least efficacious toward self-management when teaching online. Teachers had high self-efficacy for using different online platforms, organizing group work activities, and conducting formative assessments for evaluation. On the other hand, teachers had lowest self-efficacy for maintaining the balance between research and teaching activities. This paper concludes with some pedagogical implications for English teachers when teaching online.


Communicative language teaching; Covid-19 pandemic; Online teaching; Pedagogy; Self-efficacy; Self-management; Technology


Atay, D. (2007). Beginning teacher efficacy and the practicum in an EFL context. Teacher Development, 11(2), 203-219.

Bandura, A. (1978). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4(1), 139-161.

Bandura, A. (1988). Self-efficacy conception of anxiety. Anxiety Research, 1(2), 77-98.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (Vol. 5, pp. 307-337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Chacon, C. T. (2005). Teachers’ perceived efficacy among English as a foreign language teachers in middle schools in Venezuela. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 257-272. https://doi:10.1016/j.tate.2005.01.001

Choi, E., & Lee, J. (2016). Investigating the relationship of target language proficiency and self-efficacy among nonnative EFL teachers. System, 58, 49-63.

Dawley, L., Rice, K., & Hinck, G. (2010). Going virtual! The status of professional development for K-12 online teachers. Boise State University. Retrieved from

Ferdig, R. E. (2006). Assessing technologies for teaching and learning: Understanding the importance of technological pedagogical content knowledge. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37, 749-760.

Gardner, R. C., Tremblay, P. F., & Masgoret, A. (1997). Towards a full model of second language learning: An empirical investigation, The Modern Language Journal, 31(3), 344-362.

Jain, C., & Getis, A. (2003). The effectiveness of internet-based instruction: An experiment in physical geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 27, 153-167.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2), 131-152.

Lee, M. H., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Exploring teachers’ perceived self efficacy and technological pedagogical content knowledge with respect to educational use of the World Wide Web, Instructional Science, 38(1),1-21.

Lin, C. H., & Zheng, B. (2015). Teaching practices and teacher perceptions in online world language courses. Journal of Online Learning Research, 1(3), 275-303.

Linacre, J. M., & Wright, B. D. (2007). WINSTEPS: Multiple-choice, rating scale, and partial credit Rasch analysis [Computer software]. Chicago, IL: MESA.

MacIntyre, P. D., Noels, K. A., & Clément, R. (1997). Biases in self-ratings of second language proficiency: The role of language anxiety. Language Learning, 47(2), 265-287.

Mills, N. (2014). Self-efficacy in second language acquisition. In S. Mercer & M. Williams (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on the self in SLA (pp. 6-19). Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.

Mills, N., Pajares, F., & Herron, C. (2006). A reevaluation of the role of anxiety: Self-efficacy, anxiety, and their relation to reading and listening proficiency. Foreign Language Annals, 39(2), 276-294.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

Nemoto, T., & Beglar, D. (2014). Developing Likert-scale questionnaires. In N. Sonda & A. Krause (Eds.), JALT2013 Conference Proceedings (pp. 1-8). Tokyo, Japan: JALT.

Neo, M. (2003). Developing a collaborative learning environment using a web-based design. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19, 462-473.

Piniel, K., & Csizér, K. (2013). L2 motivation, anxiety and self-efficacy: The interrelationship of individual variables in the secondary school context. Studies in the Second Language Learning and Teaching, 3(4), 523-550.

Taipjutorus, W., Hansen, S., & Brown, M. (2012). Investigating a relationship between learner control and self-efficacy in an online learning environment. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 16(1), 56-69.

Thompson, G., & Woodman, K. (2019). Exploring Japanese high school English teachers’ foreign language teacher efficacy beliefs. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 47(1), 48-65.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783-805.

Wallace, R. M. (2004). A framework for understanding teaching with the internet. American Education Research Journal, 41, 447-488.

Zee, M., & H. M. Y. Koomen. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student academic adjustment, and teacher well-being: a synthesis of 40 years of research. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 981-1015.

Article Statistic

Abstract view : 602 times
PDF views : 273 times

The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

Fullscreen Fullscreen Off

Full Text: PDF

How To Cite This :


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Shzh-chen Nancy Lee, Chie Ogawa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.