Hasanah Uswatun


In teaching and learning process, teachers often focus more on how to teach than on how the students learn. Knowing the appropriate  learning strategies will able to examine not just how to teach effectively, but what the students do to facilitate their own learning. Chosing appropriate teaching techniques become evidence that learner tend to take more responsibility for their own learning. Autonomous leaning is one way to realize that. In autonomous learning the students are forced to be the independent learners. They can take incharge on their own learningwhich sees learners as individuals who can and should control and be responsible for their own learning climate.One way to apply the autonomus learning is by knowing the students’ preferenced learning style. There are different learning styles of students. Three of the most popular ones are visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic.



Full Text:



Anderson, I. R. 1983. The Architecture of Cognitition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Balç?kanl?, C. 2010. Learner Autonomy In Language Learning: Student Teachers’ Beliefs. Australian Journal of Teacher Education Volume 35 | Issue 1 Article 8

Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. State of the ArtArticle. Language Teaching, 40, 1: 21-40

Biggs,J. 2001. Enhancing Learning: A Matter of Style or Approach? In: Perspectives on Thinking, Learning and Cognitive Styles, R. J. Sternberg, L. F. Zhang (Eds.). Mahwah, Lawrance Erlbaum Associates, N. J., ISBN: 0-8058-3431-1.

Broady, E. & Kenning, M. (Eds.). 1996. Promoting Learner Autonomy in University Language Teaching. London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.

Chamot, A . U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P., & Robbins, J. (1999). The learning strategies handbook. White Plains, NY: Addison-Wesley Longman.

Cornett, C., 1983: What You Should Know about Teaching and Learning Styles. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa.

Dunn, R. & Griggs, S. (1988). Learning Styles: Quiet Revolution in American Schools. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Ehrman, M., 1996: Second Language Learning Difficulties: Looking Beneath the Surface. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fidan, N. Learning and Teaching at School, Concepts, Principles, Methods,'' Ankara: Publication. ISBN: 975-337-043-1, 1986.

Franklin, Shirley. Making Autonomous Learning a Reality.Online (

Holec, H. 1980. Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In B. F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.

Lacey, F. (2007). Autonomy, never, never, never! Independence

Little, D. (1995). Learning as dialogue: The dependence of learner autonomy on teacher autonomy. System, 23 (2).

Little D. 1997. Strategies in language learning and teaching: some introductory reflections. Paper presented at CILT Research Forum: Strategies in foreign language learning. London, 16 May 1997.

Moore, B. (Ed.). 1999. The Australian Oxford Dictionary. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Nunan, David. & Clarice, L. 1996. The Self-Directed Teacher: Managing the Learning Process. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Thomsen, H. (2000). Learners' favoured activites in the autonomous classroom. In D. Little, L. Dam, & J. Timmer (Eds.), Focus on Learning Rather than Teaching: Why and How? Papers from the International Association of Teachers of English as a 49 Foreign Language (IATEFL) Conference (Krakow, Poland, May 14-16, 1998) (pp. 71-86). Dublin: Centre for Language and Communication Studies.

Richards, J. C. & Theodore S. R. 2001.Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. USA: Cambridge University Press.

R. Dunn, K. Dunn,'' Teaching Students through their Individual Learning Styles,'' A Practical Approach. Prentice Hall, Reston, VA., ISBN: 10: 0879098082, 1978,

Reid, J., 1987. The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 87-111.

Reid, J. M. 1995. Learning Styles in the ESL/EFL Classroom.Massachusetts: Heinle and Heinle Publisher.

Scarcella, R. & Oxford, R., 1992: The Tapestry of Language Learning: The Individual in the Communicative Classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Sert, Nehir. 2006. EFL Student Teachers' Learning Autonomy.The internet Asian EFL Journal Vol. VIII No. 8.Online (

Thanasoula, Dimitrios. 2000. What is Learner Autonomy and How Can It Be Fostered?The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 11.Online (

Wangxin.Semi Autonomous Learning.Online (



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2013 Hasanah Uswatun

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright CC-BY- SA.

Creative Commons License
©DEAS: Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, Linguistics and Literature. This is an open access article under the Creative Commons - Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-SA 4.0)

View My Stats