Analyzing the Switch Segments and Types of Switch in Indonesian-English Code Switching and Code Mixing Phenomenon of Elite People in Makassar

Baharuddin Baharuddin(1*)
(1) STMIK Dipanegara Makassar, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.24256/ideas.v8i1.1347


This research aimed at finding out speech variety used by elite people in Makassar which was the phenomenon of Indonesia–English code switching and code mixing in four aspects namely (1) conversation function and reasons of code switching by the elite people, (2) the switched segments which were frequently used, (3) combination patterns of code switching, and (4) the types of code switching. In this research both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied. The data were obtained through recording for two hours. The population was the elite people in Makassar who were divided into five groups namely doctors, government officials, lawyers, lecturers, and politicians living in Makassar. There were 100 conversation produced by 25 respondents. The result show that the function of code switching which most frequently occurs in conversation tends to play with English popular expressions. In terms of switched segments, the most frequently used are noun phrases, while the most often employed combination is the combination of verbs (VP) and nouns (NP). In relation to type of code switching, intra-clausal is the most frequently used by the elite people in conversation.


Switch Segments, Types of Switch, Indonesian- English Code Switching


Azuma, S,(1998) Meaning and Form of Code Switching. In R. Jacobson. 1998: 109-124

Chloros, P. Gardener. (1991). Language Select and Switching In Strausberg. larendon.

Fasold, R. (1984). The Sociolinguistic of Society. Basil Blackwell Inc.: New York

Gumperz. J.J. (1977). The sociolinguistic Significance of Conversational Code Switching. RECL Journal. 8(2): 1-34.

......................, (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Halim, S. (2004). Conversational Functions of Indonesian – English Code Switching Among English Teachers. Unpublished Thesis. Makassar. Postgraduate Study Program.

Hill, J and Hill, K. (1980). Methaporical Switching in Modern Nahuatl:

Change and Contradiction. Paper from the sixteenth regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, pp.121-133. Chicago. Chicago Linguistics Society.

Hudson, R.A. (1980). Sociolinguistics. Cambridge, London, New York, Melbourne, Sydney. Cambridge University Press.

Jacobson, R. (1988). Code Switching Worldwide: Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyser.

Klein, Wolfgang. (1986). Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge, New York. Cambridge University Press.

Loveday, Leo. (1986). The Sociolinguistics of Learning and Using a Non Native Language. Oxford. Pergamon Press.

Mahmuda, A. (2007). Budi Bahasa. Makassar, Badan Penerbit UNM.

Masruddin, M. (2019). Omission: Common Simple Present Tense Errors in Students’ Writing of Descriptive Text. Ethical Lingua: Journal of Language Teaching and Literature, 6(1), 30-39.

Masruddin, M, Karmila, K. (2018). Constructing WH-Questions througn An Error Analysis at Junior High School of Indonesia. Langkawi: Journal of The Association for Arabic and English 4 (2), 123-137. DOI:

Mc Kay, S L and Hornberger, Nancy H. (1996). Sociolingistic and Language Teaching. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Nishimura, M. (1995). A function Analysis of Japanese / English Code Switching. Journal of Pragmatics. 23, 157-181.

Scotton, C. M. (1993). Common and Uncommon Ground: Social and Structural Factors in Code Switching. Language in Society. Cambridge University Press. 22, 3, 475-503

..................., and Ury W. (1977). Bilingual Strategies: The Social Function of Code Switching. Linguistics. 193, 5-20.

Soelaeman, M.M. (2006). Ilmu Sosial Dasar, Teori dan Konsep Ilmu Sosial. Bandung. PT. Refika Aditama.

Tjalla, Maghdalena. (2003). An Analysis of Indonesian – English Code Switching of Radio Broadcaster. Unpublished thesis. Makassar. Postgraduate Studies Program. Hasanuddin University.

Todd, Loretto and Hancock. (1986). International English Usage. New Hampshire. Croom Helm Ltd.

Wei, Li. (1998). ‘Banana Split?’ Variation in Language Choice and Code Switching Patterns of Two Groups of British-Born Chinese in Tyneside in E. Jacbson (ed). 1988. Pp. 153-75.

Yassi, A. H. (2003). Code Switching as A Communication Strategy in

Indonesian – English Bilingual Discourse. Unpublised Dissertation. Makassar. Postgraduate Studies Program. Hasanuddin University.

....................... (2002). Indolish (Indonesian-English): Toward A Typology of Indonesian – English Code Switching. Makassar. Forum Akademik.

....................... (2006). Syntactic Configuration of Code Switching between Indonesian and English. Makassar. Lembaga Penelitian Universitas Hasanuddin.

...................... (2006). Speech Variety of Elite People in Makassar: Forms and Social Functions of Indonesian – English Code Switching. Makassar. Nady Al-Adab

Yule, G. (1985). The Study of Language. An Introduction. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Article Statistic

Abstract view : 17 times
PDF views : 7 times

The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

Fullscreen Fullscreen Off

Full Text: PDF

How To Cite This :


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Baharuddin Baharuddin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.